The EMBO Workshop will deal with both natural and synthetic recoding – reprogrammed genetic decoding. Both the meaning of individual codons and the framing of the readout process can be dynamically modified by information in specific messenger RNAs, thereby enriching gene expression. The events can be regulatory and/or lead to additional types of product. Some of the latter have the non-universal amino acids selenocysteine or pyrrolysine. Productive transcribing RNA polymerase slippage also contributes to products arising from alternative frames. The workshop will deal with this “Recoding” phenomenon which is essential for understanding the organization and expression of genes in viruses and all organisms. One aspect of the workshop will be ongoing efforts to synthetically expand the repertoire of types of encoded amino acids. Approaches to manipulate levels of several cases of natural recoding will also be addressed.


  • Decoding fidelity and frameshift mutant suppressors
  • Programmed ribosomal frameshifting
  • Codon redefinition including stop codon readthrough, specification of selenocysteine & pyrrolysine, and also StopGo/Stop-Carry on.
  • Translational bypassing
  • Trans translation – tmRNA
  • Productive transcriptional realignment
  • Recoding sites and stimulatory signals, including specific mRNA structures and nascent peptides
  • Genome-wide studies of recoding
  • Where, how, when, why, and can we constructively manipulate recoding?
  • Synthetic code expansion
  • Insights to code origin and evolution





The Lake Hotel is located on the lakeshore and is 2km outside of Killarney town,

County Kerry,


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to Killarney!

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